Categories
Life Work

The Half Life of Knowledge

The following chart by Marc Rosenberg illustrates historical estimates and future predictions about the rate of growth in humankind’s collective knowledge.

Note: Pre-1982 estimates were by futurist R. Buckminster Fuller. The 2020 prediction was made by IBM.

IBM predicted by 2020 total human knowledge would double every 12 hours, as the Internet of Things expanded. While this is difficult to accurately measure, we all recognize that in 2020 we are drinking from a fire-hose of information. 

Knowledge today is growing rapidly as every click, search, purchase becomes a data point that forms the tapestry of our digital identity. Data aggregators have claimed to have over 5000 data points on every US voter, from which countless insights and predictions can be made. Every day, data is being collected across numerous digital platforms. However, this information is concentrated in the hands of the few.

IBM predicted by 2020 total human knowledge would double every 12 hours

For the few with access and computational power, knowledge is power. But those without access must run faster to keep up, as the half-life (the time it takes for half the knowledge in a particular area to become stale) of knowledge shrinks. This divide will grow as the ability to leverage information is powerful and profitable.

Those with power are unlikely to give it up voluntarily. Thus, the useful application of knowledge will consolidate even further into the hands of few. The majority of humans will simply remain overwhelmed by information and the inability to fully capture, interpret and analyze it to their advantage.

This has implications across many fields and industries. For example, how is an individual investor or even a boutique professional portfolio management team meant to out-store massive databases and outperform the computational capabilities of algorithms to fully exploit information?

We will need to be more humble about our abilities by recognizing the sheer volume of unknown unknowns. Unfortunately, the competitive nature of various segments of society and the economy will leave the average person behind.

So how do you as an individual compete? Continuous learning seems like a fruitless task as there is more to learn than is possible to ever grasp. Yet, it is still imperative if one is to outrun other individuals.

However, there are other ways to create value that might not be captured by the algorithms.

While computers are able to monopolize measurable bits of information (clicks, data points, dollars, etc.), humans still retain an advantage when identifying, analyzing and interpreting intangible cues. I’m talking about emotions, gut instinct. That feeling you get when the hairs on the back of your neck stand up is your brain analyzing millions of immeasurable pieces of information to warn you of danger.

Humans possess the ability to synthesize new information not captured by computational models. This is what we must exploit if we are to survive as individuals.

Categories
Wealth Work

Your Pay Just Got Cut: Now What?

Your boss just told you and your colleagues that you’re all getting 30% pay cuts.

What do you do? How do you react?

First of all, look at it from your company’s perspective. This was probably the better of two shitty choices.

If the company needs to slash costs in a recessionary environment it has few options and little time to make those choices. Often, an impending debt payment puts a hard deadline on the need for cash. Missing a debt repayment risks the life of the entire company.

A pay cut doesn’t mean you’re getting screwed.

Often, one of the easiest ways to free up cash is to cut salary expenses. To do this, a company can either cut headcount or reduce pay per worker.

While a 30% pay cut feels like you’re getting the shaft, it is actually a sign your boss is trying to save jobs.

It might work, it might not. But either way, keeping your job during the Covid-19 recession should be top priority. A steady paycheque keeps you solvent and it buys you time to build up emergency savings. It also buys you time to build skills, network and prepare for the possibility of eventual unemployment.

Longer job tenure means a bigger severance if laid off.

Another big upside to keeping your job is you retain tenure. A longer tenure means more severance if you are eventually laid off.

In good times, a 30% pay cut would send you immediately searching for another job. But in bad times, that would be a risky strategy. This is not the time to let pride drive decisions. Unless you’re independently wealthy, you still need an income to pay your bills and feed your family.

Quitting for a new job is risky because it means your tenure resets to zero. A company can have the best of intentions when hiring, but changing circumstances could force them into cutting staff (or salaries). Who gets cut first? The new guy – because it costs the company nothing in severance. A recession is not the time to walk away from job tenure.

A 30% paycut is usually temporary.

As the economy eventually normalizes, salaries should be returned to their previous level. If this doesn’t happen, then consider your options. But it could take 2 or more years until the labour market is strong enough to give labour a fighting chance. Until then, it’s a buyers’ market.

Job seekers today are competing against millions of other job seekers for jobs that don’t exist. This is not a labour market you voluntarily enter. So accept that 30% paycut, as painful as it is, because the alternative could be a lot worse.

(Free Guide) Survive the Coronavirus Economic Catastrophe:

Categories
Wealth

You’re Richer Than You Think? City by City Median Income in Canada

Feb 14, 2020 Update: I originally chose a sample of cities across Canada so not every single one is in the chart below. Due to popular request here is the data for Ottawa-Gatineau and Edmonton: Ottawa-Gatineau median salary is $40,128. 90th percentile is $97,713. Edmonton has a median income of $56,058. 90th percentile is $134,997.

If you’re like me you probably compare yourself to the people within your industry or social group. In particular, you look at the people you admire as the benchmark for your own success.

If you work in a high paying field like law or finance you are comparing yourself to a small elite group. This group is not representative of society in general. By comparing yourself to the upper echelon of society you likely feel like you are falling behind. However, even the worst paid surgeon makes more than most of the general population.

Reality Check: How Does Your Income Actually Compare?

I dug up some data on incomes in various Canadian cities, from Calgary to Victoria. I then calculated the 50th and 90th percentile incomes for each city for male workers. (The 50th percentile means 50% of the population is below that number. The 90th percentile means 90% of the population is below that number.)

I displayed the data below for worker salaries in each city. As you can see, 50% of the working population in each Canadian city makes less than a fairly modest income. For example, 50% of workers in Halifax earn less than $40,000.

My point: before worrying about how shitty you’re doing or how you are falling behind, take a look at how the rest of the population is faring. You may be surprised by your own relative success.

Note 1: this data is from 2015 so the Alberta figures may have fallen since due to the challenges in the oil patch.

Note 2: part time student and senior workers likely pull the data down, but this doesn’t change the point.

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Categories
Work

20 Jobs with Highest Pay for Stress Ratio

A job has both an upside (salary) and downside (stress). It is important to consider both when choosing a career path.

Your aim should be to get the highest pay for a given level of stress. For example, if two jobs have the same stress level you would choose the job that pays more. (Of course, this ignores other attributes you might consider – like personal interests – but stress is a solid long term driver of life satisfaction so it is a critical consideration.)

One might naturally believe that higher stress jobs typically come with higher pay. Unfortunately, the relationship between pay and stress isn’t linear. There are many low paying highly stressful jobs, like childcare.

Are you getting properly paid for the stress you endure in your job? Are you looking to make a career change into a lower stress, but high paid job? Do you know a teenager trying to choose a rewarding career path? Read on…

I recently found two data sets: one that lists jobs by median salary (US data) and another that lists the same jobs by stress level.

The median salary data came from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2018 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates. These estimates are calculated with data collected from employers in all industry sectors in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas in every state and the District of Columbia.

The stress estimates came from “Work Styles: Stress Tolerance” by the National Center for O*NET Development.

I linked the two data sets and then reconstituted the data to show salary per unit of stress for each job. I did this to provide a fair comparison to see which jobs pay better or worse for a given level of stress. This is similar to comparing the cost of different meats at the deli by calculating the price per gram.

The chart below shows the 20 jobs that compensate well, given the level of stress. Note that many of these jobs are highly skilled. With skill comes power and control, which are determining factors when it comes to job stress.

The next chart shows the 20 worst compensated jobs, given their stress levels. Note that these tend to be low skill jobs. Therefore employers value employees less and are more likely to treat them like garbage…causing stress.

There are plenty more jobs than just the top and bottom 20. For your enjoyment I’ve included the full list below.

OccupationStress RankingMedian SalarySalary per unit of Stress
Orthodontists67$225,760$3,370
Anesthesiologists87$267,020$3,069
Surgeons96$255,110$2,657
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons94$242,370$2,578
Psychiatrists88$220,380$2,504
Obstetricians and Gynecologists97$238,320$2,457
Family and General Practitioners88$211,780$2,407
Dentists, General79$175,840$2,226
Petroleum Engineers72$156,370$2,172
Chief Executives94$200,140$2,129
Internists, General94$196,490$2,090
Pediatricians, General88$183,240$2,082
Prosthodontists92$191,400$2,080
Physicists61$125,280$2,054
Marketing Managers75$147,240$1,963
Computer and Information Systems Managers79$152,860$1,935
Materials Scientists53$102,450$1,933
Political Scientists61$115,300$1,890
Chemical Engineers61$114,470$1,877
Computer and Information Research Scientists66$123,850$1,877
Economics Teachers, Postsecondary63$117,180$1,860
Mathematicians57$104,870$1,840
Podiatrists81$148,220$1,830
Natural Sciences Managers77$139,680$1,814
Economists64$116,020$1,813
Astronomers62$111,090$1,792
Airline Pilots, Copilots, and Flight Engineers95$169,560$1,785
Nurse Anesthetists98$174,790$1,784
Architectural and Engineering Managers84$148,970$1,773
Software Developers, Applications61$108,080$1,772
Compensation and Benefits Managers75$132,860$1,771
Computer Hardware Engineers67$117,840$1,759
Optometrists70$119,980$1,714
Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers63$107,800$1,711
Law Teachers, Postsecondary78$130,710$1,676
Public Relations and Fundraising Managers79$131,570$1,665
Actuaries70$116,250$1,661
Lawyers87$144,230$1,658
Purchasing Managers76$125,630$1,653
Sales Managers88$140,320$1,595
Materials Engineers61$96,930$1,589
Advertising and Promotions Managers84$133,090$1,584
Nuclear Engineers70$110,790$1,583
Personal Financial Advisors77$121,770$1,581
Biochemists and Biophysicists67$105,940$1,581
Computer Network Architects71$111,130$1,565
Health Specialties Teachers, Postsecondary80$122,320$1,529
Training and Development Managers80$121,730$1,522
Software Developers, Systems Software75$114,000$1,520
Art Directors69$104,590$1,516
Biomedical Engineers63$95,090$1,509
Aerospace Engineers78$117,100$1,501
General and Operations Managers83$123,880$1,493
Physics Teachers, Postsecondary71$103,830$1,462
Engineering Teachers, Postsecondary78$113,680$1,457
Operations Research Analysts61$88,350$1,448
Statisticians64$92,600$1,447
Human Resources Managers88$126,700$1,440
Electronics Engineers, Except Computer76$107,930$1,420
Information Security Analysts73$102,470$1,404
Sales Engineers78$108,610$1,392
Medical and Health Services Managers82$113,730$1,387
Industrial-Organizational Psychologists79$109,030$1,380
Geography Teachers, Postsecondary65$88,950$1,368
Geographers59$80,530$1,365
Pharmacists91$123,670$1,359
Atmospheric, Earth, Marine, and Space Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary75$101,890$1,359
Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists71$96,420$1,358
Education Administrators, Postsecondary82$111,210$1,356
Mining and Geological Engineers, Including Mining Safety Engineers73$98,420$1,348
Judges, Magistrate Judges, and Magistrates90$121,130$1,346
Environmental Engineers69$92,640$1,343
Hydrologists62$82,790$1,335
Air Traffic Controllers91$120,830$1,328
Forestry and Conservation Science Teachers, Postsecondary70$92,550$1,322
Civil Engineers71$93,720$1,320
Boilermakers48$63,240$1,318
Models24$31,570$1,315
Cartographers and Photogrammetrists52$68,340$1,314
Nurse Practitioners84$110,030$1,310
Construction Managers79$103,110$1,305
Tapers44$57,340$1,303
Electrical Engineers78$101,600$1,303
Food Scientists and Technologists56$72,570$1,296
Mathematical Science Teachers, Postsecondary68$87,140$1,281
Industrial Production Managers89$113,370$1,274
Architecture Teachers, Postsecondary78$99,320$1,273
Mechanical Engineers74$92,800$1,254
Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary77$96,200$1,249
Chemistry Teachers, Postsecondary74$92,360$1,248
Business Teachers, Postsecondary83$103,330$1,245
Database Administrators74$92,030$1,244
Education Administrators, Elementary and Secondary School80$98,750$1,234
Administrative Services Managers86$106,050$1,233
Physician Assistants88$108,430$1,232
Computer Programmers73$89,580$1,227
Sociologists74$90,290$1,220
Biological Science Teachers, Postsecondary80$97,340$1,217
Philosophy and Religion Teachers, Postsecondary68$82,420$1,212
Historians55$66,380$1,207
Environmental Science Teachers, Postsecondary76$91,330$1,202
Administrative Law Judges, Adjudicators, and Hearing Officers85$101,210$1,191
Epidemiologists64$75,690$1,183
Agricultural Engineers67$79,090$1,180
Audiologists70$82,210$1,174
Commercial and Industrial Designers61$71,430$1,171
Microbiologists70$81,150$1,159
Nurse Midwives93$106,910$1,150
Commercial Pilots84$96,530$1,149
Chemists73$83,850$1,149
Financial Analysts88$100,990$1,148
Veterinarians92$105,240$1,144
Film and Video Editors76$86,830$1,143
Computer Systems Analysts82$93,610$1,142
Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Technical and Scientific Products81$91,830$1,134
Political Science Teachers, Postsecondary88$99,480$1,130
Atmospheric and Space Scientists85$95,580$1,124
Environmental Scientists and Specialists, Including Health69$77,580$1,124
Nuclear Power Reactor Operators85$95,310$1,121
Industrial Engineers82$91,630$1,117
Education Teachers, Postsecondary66$73,680$1,116
Financial Examiners81$90,310$1,115
Ship Engineers68$75,710$1,113
History Teachers, Postsecondary76$83,990$1,105
Physical Therapists81$88,880$1,097
Architects, Except Landscape and Naval81$88,860$1,097
Area, Ethnic, and Cultural Studies Teachers, Postsecondary78$85,450$1,096
Technical Writers69$75,500$1,094
Network and Computer Systems Administrators80$87,070$1,088
Management Analysts87$94,390$1,085
Credit Analysts76$82,300$1,083
Operating Engineers and Other Construction Equipment Operators49$53,030$1,082
Agricultural Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary84$90,890$1,082
Occupational Therapists80$85,350$1,067
Archivists53$56,400$1,064
Genetic Counselors76$80,860$1,064
Dental Hygienists71$75,500$1,063
Computer Numerically Controlled Machine Tool Programmers, Metal and Plastic53$56,300$1,062
Art, Drama, and Music Teachers, Postsecondary78$82,560$1,058
Radiation Therapists82$86,730$1,058
Psychology Teachers, Postsecondary84$88,490$1,053
Anthropology and Archeology Teachers, Postsecondary90$94,080$1,045
Multimedia Artists and Animators75$78,230$1,043
Fashion Designers84$87,610$1,043
Power Distributors and Dispatchers82$85,340$1,041
Soil and Plant Scientists68$70,630$1,039
Speech-Language Pathologists78$80,700$1,035
Broadcast News Analysts89$91,990$1,034
Electrical Power-Line Installers and Repairers68$70,240$1,033
Elevator Installers and Repairers77$79,370$1,031
Sociology Teachers, Postsecondary81$83,310$1,029
Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists66$67,760$1,027
Occupational Health and Safety Specialists73$74,940$1,027
Web Developers74$75,580$1,021
Insurance Underwriters76$76,880$1,012
Funeral Service Managers93$93,820$1,009
First-Line Supervisors of Non-Retail Sales Workers84$84,600$1,007
Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Powerhouse, Substation, and Relay80$80,040$1,001
Chiropractors86$85,870$998
Budget Analysts80$79,830$998
Emergency Management Directors83$82,570$995
Gaming Managers86$85,260$991
First-Line Supervisors of Police and Detectives94$93,100$990
Market Research Analysts and Marketing Specialists72$70,960$986
Logisticians80$78,730$984
Library Science Teachers, Postsecondary77$75,450$980
Patternmakers, Wood61$59,650$978
Agents and Business Managers of Artists, Performers, and Athletes93$90,930$978
Communications Teachers, Postsecondary80$78,090$976
Landscape Architects75$73,160$975
Power Plant Operators80$78,030$975
Signal and Track Switch Repairers70$67,800$969
Athletes and Sports Competitors90$87,030$967
Animal Scientists70$67,690$967
English Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary81$78,150$965
Home Economics Teachers, Postsecondary80$77,170$965
Nuclear Medicine Technologists82$78,870$962
Nursing Instructors and Teachers, Postsecondary85$81,350$957
Chemical Technicians54$51,670$957
Mine Shuttle Car Operators59$56,150$952
Rail Car Repairers59$56,020$949
Surveyors70$66,440$949
Social Work Teachers, Postsecondary82$77,520$945
Foreign Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary84$79,160$942
Urban and Regional Planners81$76,240$941
Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Except Technical and Scientific Products74$69,480$939
Control and Valve Installers and Repairers, Except Mechanical Door62$57,890$934
Railroad Conductors and Yardmasters71$66,080$931
Petroleum Pump System Operators, Refinery Operators, and Gaugers76$70,630$929
Roof Bolters, Mining64$59,090$923
Orthotists and Prosthetists80$73,860$923
Insurance Appraisers, Auto Damage71$65,510$923
Rail-Track Laying and Maintenance Equipment Operators62$57,120$921
Aircraft Mechanics and Service Technicians71$65,230$919
Judicial Law Clerks65$59,540$916
Construction and Building Inspectors69$63,150$915
Structural Iron and Steel Workers64$58,170$909
Postmasters and Mail Superintendents85$77,040$906
Compensation, Benefits, and Job Analysis Specialists75$67,910$905
Gas Plant Operators79$71,470$905
Locomotive Engineers74$66,920$904
Loan Officers85$76,270$897
Mechanical Engineering Technicians65$58,240$896
Aerospace Engineering and Operations Technicians77$68,970$896
Avionics Technicians73$65,330$895
Wind Turbine Service Technicians65$58,000$892
Survey Researchers71$63,240$891
Foresters71$63,150$889
Real Estate Brokers89$78,940$887
Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Teachers, Postsecondary82$72,390$883
Farm Labor Contractors60$52,930$882
First-Line Supervisors of Construction Trades and Extraction Workers80$70,540$882
Pile-Driver Operators73$64,360$882
Recreation and Fitness Studies Teachers, Postsecondary82$72,190$880
Stationary Engineers and Boiler Operators73$63,690$872
Insurance Sales Agents78$67,890$870
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologists83$72,230$870
First-Line Supervisors of Production and Operating Workers74$64,340$869
Training and Development Specialists75$65,120$868
Environmental Science and Protection Technicians, Including Health58$50,350$868
Hoist and Winch Operators65$56,390$868
Executive Secretaries and Executive Administrative Assistants71$61,550$867
Locomotive Firers80$69,030$863
Cost Estimators81$69,710$861
Riggers60$51,330$856
Aircraft Structure, Surfaces, Rigging, and Systems Assemblers65$55,530$854
Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant and System Operators58$49,490$853
Fire Inspectors73$62,030$850
Editors82$69,480$847
Crane and Tower Operators69$58,160$843
Librarians73$61,530$843
Computer Network Support Specialists81$68,050$840
Dietitians and Nutritionists73$61,210$838
Brickmasons and Blockmasons65$54,430$837
Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers86$71,730$834
Instructional Coordinators81$67,490$833
Labor Relations Specialists85$70,730$832
Registered Nurses91$75,510$830
Couriers and Messengers37$30,620$828
Diagnostic Medical Sonographers90$73,860$821
Camera Operators, Television, Video, and Motion Picture76$61,750$813
Sheet Metal Workers65$52,710$811
Chemical Plant and System Operators76$61,570$810
Mechanical Drafters73$59,010$808
Floor Layers, Except Carpet, Wood, and Hard Tiles58$46,760$806
Industrial Machinery Mechanics67$54,000$806
First-Line Supervisors of Correctional Officers85$68,350$804
Electro-Mechanical Technicians75$60,240$803
Curators73$58,490$801
Electrical and Electronics Installers and Repairers, Transportation Equipment77$61,460$798
Social and Community Service Managers90$71,670$796
Sailors and Marine Oilers58$46,180$796
Adult Basic and Secondary Education and Literacy Teachers and Instructors73$58,110$796
Public Relations Specialists86$68,440$796
Refractory Materials Repairers, Except Brickmasons66$52,510$796
Health Educators75$59,660$795
Occupational Therapy Assistants76$60,410$795
Loading Machine Operators, Underground Mining65$51,450$792
Arbitrators, Mediators, and Conciliators92$72,760$791
Fundraisers78$61,610$790
Electricians75$59,190$789
Railroad Brake, Signal, and Switch Operators75$58,890$785
Machinists58$45,250$780
First-Line Supervisors of Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers89$69,320$779
Occupational Health and Safety Technicians71$55,270$778
Airfield Operations Specialists73$56,760$778
Human Resources Specialists86$66,790$777
Transit and Railroad Police96$74,450$776
Door-To-Door Sales Workers, News and Street Vendors, and Related Workers44$34,120$775
Makeup Artists, Theatrical and Performance93$72,030$775
Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanics, Except Engines69$53,370$773
Exercise Physiologists71$54,760$771
Cutters and Trimmers, Hand41$31,600$771
Fallers63$48,520$770
Physical Therapist Assistants75$57,750$770
Model Makers, Metal and Plastic74$56,920$769
Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Commercial and Industrial Equipment77$59,210$769
Plasterers and Stucco Masons62$47,610$768
Continuous Mining Machine Operators71$54,470$767
Postal Service Mail Sorters, Processors, and Processing Machine Operators67$51,250$765
Telecommunications Equipment Installers and Repairers, Except Line Installers75$57,080$761
Graphic Designers72$54,680$759
Paralegals and Legal Assistants72$54,500$757
Animal Breeders57$43,080$756
Advertising Sales Agents84$63,360$754
Solar Photovoltaic Installers61$46,010$754
Career/Technical Education Teachers, Middle School83$62,570$754
Highway Maintenance Workers55$41,440$753
Welding, Soldering, and Brazing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders52$39,160$753
Medical Equipment Repairers70$52,710$753
Floor Sanders and Finishers53$39,890$753
Radiologic Technologists82$61,540$750
Travel Agents57$42,720$749
Glaziers65$48,620$748
Fabric Menders, Except Garment45$33,550$746
Tool and Die Makers72$53,650$745
Industrial Engineering Technicians79$58,860$745
Drywall and Ceiling Tile Installers66$49,170$745
Vocational Education Teachers, Postsecondary79$58,520$741
Secondary School Teachers, Except Special and Career/Technical Education87$64,340$740
Stonemasons60$44,370$740
Civil Engineering Technicians74$54,670$739
Sound Engineering Technicians86$63,500$738
Terrazzo Workers and Finishers64$47,230$738
Rotary Drill Operators, Oil and Gas77$56,740$737
Service Unit Operators, Oil, Gas, and Mining72$52,780$733
Mine Cutting and Channeling Machine Operators67$49,080$733
Museum Technicians and Conservators64$46,870$732
Model Makers, Wood72$52,590$730
Fine Artists, Including Painters, Sculptors, and Illustrators80$58,370$730
Layout Workers, Metal and Plastic65$47,380$729
Telecommunications Line Installers and Repairers81$59,000$728
Massage Therapists63$45,880$728
Wellhead Pumpers74$53,870$728
Excavating and Loading Machine and Dragline Operators67$48,680$727
Statistical Assistants69$50,110$726
Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents84$60,500$720
Dredge Operators66$47,500$720
Grinding, Lapping, Polishing, and Buffing Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic51$36,690$719
Reinforcing Iron and Rebar Workers76$54,670$719
Rail Yard Engineers, Dinkey Operators, and Hostlers76$54,640$719
Forensic Science Technicians87$62,490$718
Tile and Marble Setters64$45,950$718
Set and Exhibit Designers85$61,020$718
Audio-Visual and Multimedia Collections Specialists73$52,270$716
Subway and Streetcar Operators88$62,970$716
First-Line Supervisors of Office and Administrative Support Workers83$59,340$715
Legal Secretaries70$50,040$715
Career/Technical Education Teachers, Secondary School88$62,810$714
Title Examiners, Abstractors, and Searchers72$51,380$714
Environmental Engineering Technicians77$54,800$712
Watch Repairers63$44,830$712
Mechanical Door Repairers61$43,350$711
Social Science Research Assistants71$50,420$710
Private Detectives and Investigators80$56,810$710
Special Education Teachers, Secondary School92$65,320$710
Special Education Teachers, Preschool87$61,610$708
Timing Device Assemblers and Adjusters53$37,460$707
Milling and Planing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic63$44,490$706
Painters, Transportation Equipment66$46,460$704
Septic Tank Servicers and Sewer Pipe Cleaners59$41,530$704
Millwrights80$56,250$703
Farm and Home Management Advisors75$52,700$703
Separating, Filtering, Clarifying, Precipitating, and Still Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders63$44,140$701
Postal Service Mail Carriers74$51,780$700
Gas Compressor and Gas Pumping Station Operators90$62,900$699
Craft Artists58$40,490$698
Engine and Other Machine Assemblers65$45,330$697
Maintenance Workers, Machinery70$48,720$696
Radio, Cellular, and Tower Equipment Installers and Repairers81$56,340$696
Special Education Teachers, Kindergarten and Elementary School91$63,110$694
Commercial Divers86$59,470$692
Chemical Equipment Operators and Tenders74$51,070$690
Insulation Workers, Floor, Ceiling, and Wall61$42,070$690
Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks67$46,110$688
Proofreaders and Copy Markers61$41,950$688
Rock Splitters, Quarry52$35,760$688
Interior Designers86$59,120$687
Cement Masons and Concrete Finishers69$47,350$686
Court Reporters91$62,390$686
Food Service Managers86$58,960$686
Roofers64$43,870$685
Special Education Teachers, Middle School94$64,390$685
Cardiovascular Technologists and Technicians86$58,730$683
Motorboat Mechanics and Service Technicians62$42,330$683
Insulation Workers, Mechanical78$53,180$682
Computer User Support Specialists81$55,050$680
Hearing Aid Specialists82$55,650$679
Real Estate Sales Agents91$61,720$678
Furniture Finishers50$33,850$677
Elementary School Teachers, Except Special Education92$62,200$676
First-Line Supervisors of Landscaping, Lawn Service, and Groundskeeping Workers76$51,280$675
Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders62$41,810$674
Middle School Teachers, Except Special and Career/Technical Education92$62,030$674
Maintenance and Repair Workers, General61$41,020$672
Aircraft Cargo Handling Supervisors82$55,110$672
Respiratory Therapists93$62,500$672
Tool Grinders, Filers, and Sharpeners61$40,890$670
Lodging Managers93$62,270$670
Drilling and Boring Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic62$41,490$669
Educational, Guidance, School, and Vocational Counselors90$60,160$668
Traffic Technicians76$50,700$667
Fish and Game Wardens89$59,260$666
Paving, Surfacing, and Tamping Equipment Operators67$44,360$662
Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas72$47,570$661
Postal Service Clerks77$50,860$661
Explosives Workers, Ordnance Handling Experts, and Blasters80$52,780$660
Desktop Publishers71$46,750$658
Carpet Installers68$44,550$655
Derrick Operators, Oil and Gas73$47,630$652
Biological Technicians74$48,060$649
Computer Operators72$46,750$649
Medical Appliance Technicians65$42,180$649
Kindergarten Teachers, Except Special Education90$58,370$649
Morticians, Undertakers, and Funeral Directors89$57,620$647
Multiple Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic58$37,510$647
Cutting, Punching, and Press Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic56$36,180$646
Reporters and Correspondents86$55,530$646
Marriage and Family Therapists84$54,150$645
Driver/Sales Workers46$29,610$644
Heavy and Tractor-Trailer Truck Drivers71$45,570$642
Upholsterers56$35,920$641
Agricultural Inspectors72$45,970$638
Helpers–Brickmasons, Blockmasons, Stonemasons, and Tile and Marble Setters57$36,390$638
Roustabouts, Oil and Gas63$40,220$638
Meter Readers, Utilities70$44,640$638
Cutting and Slicing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders56$35,700$638
Motorboat Operators79$50,350$637
Automotive Body and Related Repairers73$46,460$636
Brokerage Clerks85$53,940$635
Clergy84$53,290$634
Crushing, Grinding, and Polishing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders60$38,060$634
Production, Planning, and Expediting Clerks79$50,020$633
Broadcast Technicians74$46,770$632
Tank Car, Truck, and Ship Loaders67$42,330$632
Pourers and Casters, Metal63$39,670$630
Packaging and Filling Machine Operators and Tenders52$32,740$630
Fitness Trainers and Aerobics Instructors71$44,580$628
Helpers–Extraction Workers60$37,660$628
Computer-Controlled Machine Tool Operators, Metal and Plastic67$41,960$626
Grinding and Polishing Workers, Hand51$31,900$625
Probation Officers and Correctional Treatment Specialists94$58,790$625
Credit Counselors80$49,820$623
Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists79$49,150$622
Musical Instrument Repairers and Tuners63$39,110$621
Interpreters and Translators89$55,230$621
Farm Equipment Mechanics and Service Technicians68$42,190$620
Patternmakers, Metal and Plastic76$47,130$620
Medical Records and Health Information Technicians71$44,010$620
Audio and Video Equipment Technicians79$48,940$619
Computer, Automated Teller, and Office Machine Repairers66$40,880$619
Adhesive Bonding Machine Operators and Tenders58$35,850$618
Tax Preparers76$46,860$617
Camera and Photographic Equipment Repairers69$42,540$617
Outdoor Power Equipment and Other Small Engine Mechanics60$36,940$616
Flight Attendants92$56,630$616
Healthcare Social Workers95$58,470$615
Fabric and Apparel Patternmakers80$49,180$615
Structural Metal Fabricators and Fitters68$41,640$612
Hazardous Materials Removal Workers77$47,050$611
Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers69$42,010$609
Shoe and Leather Workers and Repairers49$29,800$608
Forest and Conservation Technicians66$40,110$608
Pesticide Handlers, Sprayers, and Applicators, Vegetation63$38,210$607
Painting, Coating, and Decorating Workers56$33,960$606
Furnace, Kiln, Oven, Drier, and Kettle Operators and Tenders67$40,610$606
Foundry Mold and Coremakers61$36,820$604
Recreational Therapists84$50,640$603
Construction Laborers67$40,350$602
Choreographers89$53,560$602
Heat Treating Equipment Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic65$39,050$601
Radio and Television Announcers86$51,630$600
Child, Family, and School Social Workers83$49,760$600
Security and Fire Alarm Systems Installers81$48,540$599
Tire Builders76$45,530$599
Respiratory Therapy Technicians86$51,380$597
Medical Transcriptionists61$36,350$596
Pipelayers73$43,500$596
Human Resources Assistants, Except Payroll and Timekeeping70$41,620$595
Bailiffs84$49,870$594
Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks71$42,110$593
Fiberglass Laminators and Fabricators61$36,170$593
Chefs and Head Cooks88$52,160$593
Self-Enrichment Education Teachers76$44,960$592
Costume Attendants78$46,010$590
Painters, Construction and Maintenance73$43,050$590
Logging Equipment Operators71$41,840$589
Bridge and Lock Tenders81$47,660$588
Motorcycle Mechanics67$39,260$586
Paper Goods Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders69$40,320$584
Cargo and Freight Agents79$46,070$583
Forging Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic70$40,770$582
Recreational Vehicle Service Technicians69$40,090$581
Cooks, Private Household71$41,240$581
Education Administrators, Preschool and Childcare Center/Program93$53,990$581
Bus Drivers, Transit and Intercity77$44,650$580
Lathe and Turning Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic71$41,090$579
Opticians, Dispensing69$39,930$579
Home Appliance Repairers71$41,020$578
Farmworkers, Farm, Ranch, and Aquacultural Animals50$28,840$577
Rolling Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic71$40,790$575
Electric Motor, Power Tool, and Related Repairers80$45,770$572
Forest Fire Inspectors and Prevention Specialists87$49,610$570
Embalmers82$46,640$569
Machine Feeders and Offbearers56$31,710$566
Log Graders and Scalers69$39,060$566
Meeting, Convention, and Event Planners95$53,730$566
Textile Bleaching and Dyeing Machine Operators and Tenders53$29,930$565
Shipping, Receiving, and Traffic Clerks62$34,980$564
Surgical Technologists87$49,040$564
Electronic Home Entertainment Equipment Installers and Repairers71$39,800$561
Office Machine Operators, Except Computer62$34,530$557
Tree Trimmers and Pruners73$40,510$555
Extruding and Drawing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic66$36,620$555
Semiconductor Processors72$39,810$553
Industrial Truck and Tractor Operators66$36,480$553
Directors, Religious Activities and Education85$46,980$553
Loan Interviewers and Clerks75$41,310$551
Prepress Technicians and Workers77$42,240$549
Electronic Equipment Installers and Repairers, Motor Vehicles67$36,750$549
Coaches and Scouts80$43,870$548
Athletic Trainers90$49,280$548
Dental Laboratory Technicians79$43,180$547
Procurement Clerks79$43,180$547
First-Line Supervisors of Housekeeping and Janitorial Workers79$43,150$546
Agricultural Equipment Operators60$32,620$544
Automotive Glass Installers and Repairers67$36,370$543
Word Processors and Typists76$41,160$542
Correspondence Clerks72$38,990$542
Graders and Sorters, Agricultural Products49$26,510$541
Eligibility Interviewers, Government Programs86$46,480$540
Pump Operators, Except Wellhead Pumpers88$47,510$540
Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers92$49,630$539
Cooling and Freezing Equipment Operators and Tenders65$34,520$531
Paperhangers77$40,840$530
Fence Erectors71$37,650$530
Community Health Workers82$43,480$530
Woodworking Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Except Sawing59$31,110$527
Pest Control Workers72$37,950$527
Security Guards61$32,050$525
Correctional Officers and Jailers94$49,300$524
Light Truck or Delivery Services Drivers71$36,920$520
Demonstrators and Product Promoters64$33,260$520
Extruding, Forming, Pressing, and Compacting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders71$36,800$518
Etchers and Engravers67$34,550$516
Photographers83$42,770$515
Cabinetmakers and Bench Carpenters71$36,580$515
Ophthalmic Laboratory Technicians67$34,490$515
Extruding and Forming Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Synthetic and Glass Fibers69$35,500$514
Printing Press Operators75$38,470$513
Helpers–Painters, Paperhangers, Plasterers, and Stucco Masons62$31,720$512
Coil Winders, Tapers, and Finishers72$36,610$508
Parking Enforcement Workers83$42,200$508
Radio Operators88$44,710$508
Secretaries and Administrative Assistants, Except Legal, Medical, and Executive75$38,030$507
Print Binding and Finishing Workers69$34,850$505
Plating and Coating Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic69$34,830$505
Food and Tobacco Roasting, Baking, and Drying Machine Operators and Tenders65$32,730$504
Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses94$47,050$501
Photographic Process Workers and Processing Machine Operators70$34,910$499
Forest and Conservation Workers63$31,320$497
Locksmiths and Safe Repairers88$43,740$497
First-Line Supervisors of Personal Service Workers84$41,710$497
Bill and Account Collectors77$38,220$496
Dispatchers, Except Police, Fire, and Ambulance87$42,940$494
Coating, Painting, and Spraying Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders74$36,510$493
New Accounts Clerks75$37,000$493
Transportation Security Screeners85$41,860$492
Molding, Coremaking, and Casting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic69$33,950$492
Dental Assistants81$39,770$491
Helpers–Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers64$31,390$490
Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and Samplers, Recordkeeping70$34,100$487
Graduate Teaching Assistants75$36,390$485
Refuse and Recyclable Material Collectors84$40,560$483
File Clerks71$33,810$476
Public Address System and Other Announcers82$39,040$476
Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners61$28,950$475
Barbers70$33,220$475
Customer Service Representatives77$36,470$474
Helpers–Pipelayers, Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters69$32,570$472
Order Clerks76$35,790$471
Animal Trainers75$35,260$470
First-Line Supervisors of Retail Sales Workers96$45,080$470
Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents and Travel Clerks89$41,730$469
Butchers and Meat Cutters71$33,210$468
Interviewers, Except Eligibility and Loan76$35,520$467
Helpers–Electricians71$32,960$464
Mixing and Blending Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders85$39,360$463
Library Technicians78$36,080$463
Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers67$30,940$462
Textile Knitting and Weaving Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders66$30,470$462
Helpers–Carpenters69$31,850$462
Floral Designers63$28,900$459
Medical Secretaries81$37,090$458
Conveyor Operators and Tenders77$35,110$456
Ophthalmic Medical Technicians84$38,220$455
Parts Salespersons75$34,080$454
Medical Equipment Preparers84$37,990$452
Office Clerks, General78$35,200$451
Rehabilitation Counselors89$39,930$449
Cleaning, Washing, and Metal Pickling Equipment Operators and Tenders74$33,090$447
Helpers–Roofers71$31,740$447
Gaming Surveillance Officers and Gaming Investigators81$36,200$447
Police, Fire, and Ambulance Dispatchers97$43,290$446
Food Batchmakers72$32,090$446
Bus Drivers, School or Special Client75$33,390$445
Motion Picture Projectionists58$25,820$445
Helpers–Production Workers66$29,380$445
Sewers, Hand67$29,510$440
Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, Except Postal Service73$32,040$439
Library Assistants, Clerical66$28,960$439
Dietetic Technicians69$30,130$437
Textile Cutting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders68$29,440$433
Skincare Specialists84$36,350$433
Hairdressers, Hairstylists, and Cosmetologists70$30,190$431
Merchandise Displayers and Window Trimmers74$31,850$430
Dishwashers54$23,190$429
Veterinary Technologists and Technicians83$35,560$428
Manufactured Building and Mobile Home Installers77$32,910$427
Coin, Vending, and Amusement Machine Servicers and Repairers86$36,390$423
Food Cooking Machine Operators and Tenders75$31,690$423
First-Line Supervisors of Food Preparation and Serving Workers86$36,190$421
Cleaners of Vehicles and Equipment64$26,900$420
Psychiatric Technicians90$37,760$420
Animal Control Workers92$38,490$418
Crossing Guards77$31,970$415
Laundry and Dry-Cleaning Workers59$24,480$415
Tailors, Dressmakers, and Custom Sewers83$34,330$414
Textile Winding, Twisting, and Drawing Out Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders72$29,660$412
Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand75$30,890$412
Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics92$37,760$410
Pharmacy Technicians83$34,020$410
Sewing Machine Operators66$26,990$409
Baggage Porters and Bellhops67$26,990$403
Meat, Poultry, and Fish Cutters and Trimmers69$27,790$403
Social and Human Service Assistants89$35,830$403
Telephone Operators98$39,360$402
Tire Repairers and Changers74$29,530$399
Occupational Therapy Aides82$32,580$397
Medical Assistants87$34,540$397
Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders76$30,110$396
Packers and Packagers, Hand67$26,490$395
Phlebotomists90$35,560$395
Sawing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Wood79$31,200$395
Retail Salespersons72$28,310$393
Bakers73$28,660$393
Umpires, Referees, and Other Sports Officials93$36,440$392
Manicurists and Pedicurists66$25,860$392
Preschool Teachers, Except Special Education88$34,410$391
Concierges86$33,550$390
Counter and Rental Clerks80$31,200$390
Pharmacy Aides75$29,190$389
Food Preparation Workers64$24,830$388
Locker Room, Coatroom, and Dressing Room Attendants69$26,720$387
Gaming Cage Workers75$28,980$386
Switchboard Operators, Including Answering Service81$31,290$386
Ambulance Drivers and Attendants, Except Emergency Medical Technicians77$29,010$377
Bicycle Repairers81$30,290$374
Data Entry Keyers91$33,740$371
Funeral Attendants77$28,480$370
Slaughterers and Meat Packers77$28,450$369
Orderlies81$29,840$368
Tellers82$30,140$368
Cooks, Fast Food62$22,650$365
Gaming and Sports Book Writers and Runners76$27,640$364
Ushers, Lobby Attendants, and Ticket Takers65$23,610$363
Bartenders75$26,780$357
Receptionists and Information Clerks85$30,350$357
Taxi Drivers and Chauffeurs80$28,450$356
Parking Lot Attendants71$25,130$354
Physical Therapist Aides81$28,500$352
Teacher Assistants82$28,750$351
Automotive and Watercraft Service Attendants74$25,940$351
Residential Advisors86$29,970$348
Dining Room and Cafeteria Attendants and Bartender Helpers69$23,950$347
Food Servers, Nonrestaurant73$24,980$342
Cooks, Restaurant81$27,580$340
Transportation Attendants, Except Flight Attendants90$30,640$340
Lifeguards, Ski Patrol, and Other Recreational Protective Service Workers72$24,420$339
Cooks, Institution and Cafeteria84$28,290$337
Psychiatric Aides93$31,090$334
Recreation Workers85$28,310$333
Waiters and Waitresses78$25,830$331
Cooks, Short Order76$25,140$331
Telemarketers87$28,550$328
Amusement and Recreation Attendants72$23,460$326
Nursing Assistants91$29,580$325
Gaming Change Persons and Booth Cashiers87$27,220$313
Nonfarm Animal Caretakers83$25,890$312
Veterinary Assistants and Laboratory Animal Caretakers92$28,690$312
Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners83$25,570$308
Personal Care Aides83$25,090$302
Home Health Aides84$25,330$302
Pressers, Textile, Garment, and Related Materials80$24,060$301
Cashiers78$23,270$298
Hosts and Hostesses, Restaurant, Lounge, and Coffee Shop78$23,260$298
Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks87$25,130$289
Shampooers78$22,160$284
Combined Food Preparation and Serving Workers, Including Fast Food78$22,140$284
Childcare Workers87$24,610$283
Gaming Dealers84$23,070$275
Counter Attendants, Cafeteria, Food Concession, and Coffee Shop85$23,240$273